Carole Baekey

Technical Adviser, Health Policy, Legislation and Ethics

Carole A. Baekey has more than two decades experience in developing and drafting health policy, legislation, biomedical ethics and related regulatory matters in Sub-Saharan Africa and more than three decades’ experience providing legal assistance and related advocacy for communities experiencing marginalisation and discrimination in North America and Sub-Saharan Africa. Carole served as a Director of HPI for over 10 years.

Background and relevant experience

Ms Baekey has worked extensively as a health law consultant in developing health policy and applicable constitutional and related legal requirements, analysing existing legislation as well as working with national and state/provincial ministries developing policy, legislation and a broad range of regulatory frameworks, with a particular focus on effective governance, transparency and accountability. Additionally, she has developed policy and legislation in the area of biomedical ethics. She has also lobbied legislatures and directed legal action reform with a focus on governance.

Currently, Ms Baekey is providing technical assistance to review and overhaul health laws in Lesotho, including heading the small team developing the Health Professions Bill, 2012 and Public Health Bill, 2012 and regulations thereunder. She drafted the Jigawa Integrated Health Systems Bill (2007) in consultation with stakeholders in Jigawa State, Nigeria, as part of the Partnership for Transforming Health Systems 1 (PATHS 1) programme. She also developed district health system legislation in consultation with the Enugu State Health Ministry (2003–2004). Working in northern Nigeria with the Partnership for Reviving Routine Immunization in Northern Nigeria / Maternal Newborn and Child Health (PRRINN-MNCH) programme since 2006 she, together with the local government ministries and State Team Managers, developed the subsequently enacted Gunduma Health System Law, 2007 (Jigawa State), Yobe State Primary Health Care Management Board Law, 2011 and Zamfara State Primary Health Care Board Law, 2011 and all regulations under each Law.

Ms Baekey’s other assignments have included working with the Malawi Ministry of Health to develop the Malawi Health Policy, including the country’s Biomedical Research and Ethics Policy. In South Africa, Ms Baekey has worked for a number of provincial government ministries, including the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health and Eastern Cape Department of Health. She carried out a number of assignments for the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health (1995–2004) related to the need for changes to policy and legislation following the end of apartheid, to improve access for all South Africans to health services, and to improve the services themselves.

Ms Baekey was a member of the US-South Africa Fulbright Commission from 1988 to 2002 and was its Chairperson in 2002. She served on the Board of Directors of King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa. In addition to providing services to governmental clients, since 1995 Ms Baekey has represented and continues to represent a range of for profit and non-profit health service delivery companies. Ms Baekey’s pro bono work includes representation of the Adherence Support Programme, which provides training and support for roll-out of antiretrovirals in KwaZulu-Natal (2004 – 2005).

Selected publications, presentations  and report


Carole A Baekey and Janine L Hicks (1994) ‘Joining their Urban Brethen: The Need for Approaches to South African Rural Justice’. In: The Other Law. Cape Town: Institute of Criminology at the University of Cape Town.

Carole A Baekey and Andrea A Gabriel (1994) ‘Contemporary Law Centre: Empowering Rural South African Communities’, Maryland Journal of Contemporary Issues. July 1994

Carole Baekey (1993) ‘Ukwenza Intando Yeningi Isebenze/Making Democracy Work’. Manual on Voting, Peaceful Change, Democracy and Building Civil Society.  Community Law Centre

Carole Baekey and Andrea A Gabriel (1993) ‘Politics of Exclusion in the New South Africa’ Oxford:Oxford University

Carole Baekey (1992) ‘Ukulindela Intando Yeningi /Waiting for Democracy’. Manual on Voting Rights. Community Law Centre.

Carole Baekey and Andrea A Gabriel (1991) ‘Amalungelo Oluntu/Human Rights

Carole Baekey (1987-1989) ‘ A ward to its Guardian: Native American, Policy and Law’ University of Natal Law and Social Policy Review (Vol.2)